|Template:R-I Template:R-I Template:R-I Template:R-I|
| File:King's Cross platform 7.jpg |
|Local authority||London Borough of Camden|
|Managed by||Network Rail|
|Number of platforms||12 (Numbered 0-11)|
|Template:Abbr||King's Cross St. Pancras (London Underground) |
London St. Pancras Int'l (National Rail)
|National Rail annual entry and exit|
|2004–05||11px 20.806 million|
|- interchange||2.02 million|
|2005–06||11px 20.302 million|
|- interchange||11px 2.982 million|
|2006–07||11px 22.504 million|
|- interchange||11px 2.101 million|
|2007–08||11px 23.945 million|
|- interchange||11px 2.684 million|
|2008–09||11px 24.641 million|
|- interchange||11px 2.703 million|
|2009–10||11px 24.818 million|
|- interchange||11px 2.786 million|
|Lists of stations||*DLR|
King's Cross railway station, also known as London King's Cross, is a central London railway terminus opened in 1852. The station is on the northern edge of central London, at the junction of the A501 Euston Road and York Way, in the Kings Cross district and within the London Borough of Camden on the border of the London Borough of Islington. King's Cross is the southern terminus of the East Coast Main Line, one of the UK's major railway backbones. Some of its most important long-distance destinations are Leeds, Newcastle and Edinburgh. It also hosts outer-suburban services to Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire as well as a regional service to Peterborough, Cambridge and Kings Lynn. Immediately adjacent to the west is St Pancras railway station, the London terminus for international Eurostar trains, high-speed trains to Kent via High Speed 1 and East Midlands Trains, as well as a major interchange for First Capital Connect services. The two stations are operationally completely separate, but from the passenger's point of view they may be regarded as a single complex for interchange purposes. They share King's Cross St. Pancras tube station on the London Underground network.
King's Cross was originally designed and built as the London hub of the Great Northern Railway and terminus of the East Coast main line. It took its name from the Kings Cross area of London, itself named after a monument to King George IV that was demolished in 1845. Plans for the station were first made in December 1848 by and under the direction of George Turnbull, resident engineer for construction of the first 20 miles of the Great Northern Railway out of London. The detailed design was by Lewis Cubitt, and construction was in 1851–1852 on the site of a former fever and smallpox hospital. The main part of the station, which today includes platforms 1 to 8, was opened on 14 October 1852. It replaced a temporary terminus at Maiden Lane that had opened on 7 August 1850.
The platforms have been reconfigured several times. Originally there was only one arrival and one departure platform (today's platforms 1 and 8 respectively), with the space between used for carriage sidings. In later years, as suburban traffic grew, space for additional platforms was added with considerably less grandeur. The secondary building now containing platforms 9–11 (and the fictional [[Platform 9 3/4|Platform Template:Frac]]) survives from that era. A new platform, numbered 0, was opened in 2010. It lies to the east of platform 1, and has created capacity for Network Rail to begin a phased refurbishment of platforms 1-8 that will include new lifts to a new footbridge between the platforms. By 2013 the entire station will have been restored and transformed. When the railways were privatised in 1996, express services into the station were taken over by GNER. Though it successfully re-bid for the franchise in 2005, it was asked to surrender it in December 2006. National Express East Coast took over the franchise on 9 December 2007 after an interim period when GNER ran trains under a management contract. In July 2009, it was announced that National Express was no longer willing to finance the East Coast subsidiary and so the franchise was taken back into public ownership, handing over to East Coast in November 2009. According to recent urban folklore, King's Cross is built on the site of Boudica's final battle, or else her body is buried under one of the platforms. Platforms 8, 9 and 10 have been suggested as possible sites. There are also passages under the station which Boudica's ghost is supposed to haunt. The King's Cross fire of 1987, in which 31 people died, was at the adjacent King's Cross St. Pancras Underground station. A major redevelopment of this station (partly influenced by the report issued after the fire) is currently in progress. Phase One was completed in 2006, and Phase Two is expected to be complete by 2011.
In 1972, a one-storey extension designed in-house by British Rail was constructed in front of the station. Although the extension was intended to be temporary, it still stands nearly forty years later. Many consider the extension unattractive, not least because it obscures the Grade I-listed façade of the original station. Before the extension was built, the façade had already become hidden behind a small terrace of shops. The extension is scheduled to be demolished, revealing once again the Lewis Cubitt architecture, when the new ticket hall and concourse area are finished on the station's western side. On 10 September 1973, a Provisional IRA bomb exploded in the booking hall at 12.24 pm, causing extensive damage and injuring six people, some seriously. The Template:Convert/lb device was thrown without warning into the station by a youth who escaped into the crowd and was not caught.
King's Cross York RoadEdit
Before 1976, part of King's Cross was an intermediate station. On the extreme east of the site was Kings Cross York Road, with suburban trains travelling south from Finsbury Park calling here, then going underground using the York Road curve to join the City Widened Lines to Farringdon, Barbican and Moorgate stations. In the other direction, trains from Moorgate came off the Widened Lines via the Hotel Curve, with platform 16 (latterly renumbered 14) rising to the main-line level. Services to and from Moorgate were diverted via the Northern City Line from August 1976.
Location and surroundingsEdit
West of King's Cross are, in succession, the reconstructed and restored St Pancras station, the British Library and Euston station, all within a few minutes' walk. Considerable regeneration effort has gone into the area in recent years, with the opening of new hotels and office space under construction. The Network-Rail-owned Power Signal Box (PSB) for the southern end of the East Coast Main Line stands at the country end of the station. The box controls trains as far as Biggleswade and Royston, and also controls the Northern City Line. Peterborough signal box takes over after Biggleswade, and Cambridge after Royston. First Capital Connect also controls all its GN route trains from its control (or 'Service Delivery Centre') at King's Cross PSB.
In 2005, a £500 million restoration plan was announced by Network Rail; it was approved by Camden London Borough Council on 9 November 2007. The plan includes a thorough restoration of the arched roof of the station and the demolition of the 1972 extension, which will be replaced by an open-air plaza. A semi-circular concourse (estimated completion date 2012) will be built in the space directly to the west of the station behind the Great Northern Hotel, which will have some outbuildings demolished. It will replace the current 1972 concourse, shopping area and East Coast ticket office, providing greater integration between the intercity and suburban sections of the station, as well as easier access to St Pancras. The land between and behind the domestic main lines leading from the two stations is being redeveloped with nearly 2,000 new homes, Template:Convert/m² of offices and new roads as King's Cross Central.
As part of this restoration programme, refurbished offices have opened on the east side of the station to replace the ones lost on the west side, and a new platform 0 opened underneath them on 20 May 2010. The platform occupies the space of a former taxi rank, and was originally to be known as platform Y, but was renamed to avoid the confusion of having both lettered and numbered platforms. When the refurbishment is complete, all the platforms will be renumbered, the new one becoming platform 1. Although there have been plans for a new platform for some time to increase the capacity at the station, it was ultimately the need to minimise disruption during restoration when other platforms would be temporarily out of use that led to this being built.
Template:East Coast route Template:First Capital Connect services Template:First Hull Trains Route The station is served by routes from the north and east of England and from Scotland, connecting it to major cities such as Cambridge, Peterborough, Hull, Doncaster, Leeds, York, Newcastle, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dundee, Aberdeen and Inverness. Four train companies currently run services into the mainline station:
London North Eastern RailwayEdit
LNER runs inter-city services on the East Coast Main Line to Peterborough, Doncaster, Leeds, Wakefield, Hull, York, Darlington, Durham, Newcastle Central, Edinburgh Waverley, Glasgow Central, Dundee, Aberdeen, Perth and Inverness. Services operate at the following intervals:
- xx:00, calling at various stations to Edinburgh Waverley (extended on alternate hours to Glasgow Central).
- xx:10, calling at various stations to Leeds.
- xx:30, calling at various stations to Newcastle (with some services extended into Scotland).
- xx:35, calling at various stations to Leeds.
- 10:30, 14:00 and 16:00 Edinburgh departures are extended to Aberdeen, while the 12:00 departure runs to Inverness.
Great Northern operates suburban and regional services to North London, Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire and Norfolk, with a final destination of either Stevenage, Hertford North, Peterborough, Letchworth, Cambridge or King's Lynn. 
First Hull Trains operates inter-city services to Hull via the East Coast Main Line. Unlike the other train companies in FirstGroup, First Hull Trains is not a franchised train operating company but operates under an open access arrangement.
Grand Central operates inter-city services to North Yorkshire, County Durham and Sunderland, along the East Coast Main Line. Grand Central is another open access operator. On 23 May 2010, Grand Central also began services to Bradford Interchange via Halifax and Pontefract which had originally been due to begin in December 2009.
Bus Services Edit
|Great Northern||Here||Welwyn Garden City||Finsbury Park, Alexandra Palace, New Southgate, Oakley Park, New Barnet, Potters Bar, Hatfield|
|Royston||Finsbury Park, Potters Bar, Hatfield, Welwyn Garden City, Welwyn North, Knebworth, Stevenage, Hitchin, Letchworth, Baldock, Ashwell and Mordon|
|Cambridge||Finsbury Park, Potters Bar, Hatfield, Welwyn Garden City, Welwyn North, Knebworth, Stevenage, Hitchin, Letchworth, Baldock, Ashwell and Mordon, Royston, Meldreth, Shepreth, Foxton|
|Kings Lynn||Finsbury Park, Potters Bar, Hatfield, Welwyn Garden City, Welwyn North, Knebworth, Stevenage, Hitchin, Letchworth, Baldock, Ashwell and Mordon, Royston, Meldreth, Shepreth, Foxton, Cambridge, Waterbeach, Ely, Littleport, Downham Market, Watlington|
|Peterborough||Finsbury Park, Potters Bar, Hatfield, Welwyn Garden City, Welwyn North, Knebworth, Stevenage, Hitchin, Arsley, Biggleswade, Sandy, St Neots, Huntindon|
|LNER||Newark Northgate||Stevenage, Peterborough, Grantham|
|Lincoln Central||Stevenage, Peterborough, Grantham, Newark Northgate|
|Leeds||Stevenage, Peterborough, Grantham, Newark Northgate, Retford, Doncaster, Wakefield Westgate|
|Bradford Forster Square||Stevenage, Peterborough, Grantham, Newark Northgate, Retford, Doncaster, Wakefield Westgate, Leeds, Shipley|
|Skipton||Stevenage, Peterborough, Grantham, Newark Northgate, Retford, Doncaster, Wakefield Westgate, Leeds, Keighley|
|Harrogate||Stevenage, Peterborough, Grantham, Newark Northgate, Retford, Doncaster, Wakefield Westgate, Leeds|
|York||Stevenage, Peterborough, Grantham, Newark Northgate, Retford, Doncaster|
|Newcastle||Stevenage, Peterborough, Grantham, Newark Northgate, Retford, Doncaster, York, Northallerton, Darlington, Durham|
|Sunderland||Stevenage, Peterborough, Grantham, Newark Northgate, Retford, Doncaster, York, Darlington, Durham, Newcastle|
|Stevenage, Peterborough, Grantham, Newark Northgate, Retford, Doncaster, York, Darlington, Durham, Newcastle, Alnmouth, Morpeth, Berwick Upon Tweed, Dunbar|
|Glasgow Central||Stevenage, Peterborough, Grantham, Newark Northgate, Retford, Doncaster, York, Darlington, Durham, Newcastle, Alnmouth, Morpeth, Berwick Upon Tweed, Dunbar, Edinburgh, Haymarket, Motherwell|
|Aberdeen||York, Darlington, Newcastle, Edinburgh, Haymarket, Inverkeithing, Kirkcaldy, Leuchars, Dundee, Abroath, Montrose, Stonehaven|
|Inverness||York, Darlington, Newcastle, Edinburgh, Haymarket, Falkirk Grahamston, Stirling, Dunblane, Gleneagles, Perth, Dunkeld and Birnam, Pitlochry, Blair Atholl, Newtonmore, Kingussie, Aviemore, Carrbridge|
|Hull||Stevenage, Peterborough, Grantham, Newark Northgate, Retford, Doncaster, Selby, Howden, Brough|
|Hull Trains||Peterborough, Grantham, Doncaster, Selby, Howden, Brough|
|Beverley||Peterborough, Grantham, Doncaster, Selby, Howden, Brough, Hull|
|Grand Central||Sunderland||York, Thirsk, Northallerton, Eaglescliffe, Hartlepool|
|Bradford Interchange||Doncaster, Pontefract Monkhill, Wakefield Kirkgate, Mirfield, Brighouse, Halifax, Low Moor|
King's Cross St. Pancras tube stationEdit
- Main article: King's Cross St. Pancras tube station
King's Cross St. Pancras tube station is served by more lines than any other station on the London Underground, and is therefore one of the busiest, serving both King's Cross and St Pancras main line stations. It is in Travelcard Zone 1. Major work is ongoing at the station to link the various entrances to two new ticket halls for London Underground and reduce overcrowding. Overcrowding has led to the closure of the entry and exit to the main Tube ticket hall from inside King's Cross during the weekday morning peak rush hours. Passengers needing to access King's Cross St. Pancras tube station must do so via the new entrances outside King's Cross. Staff are placed at these entrances throughout the morning peak to implement "crowd control" and narrow or close the entrances. These entrances are used as none of the other entrances to King's Cross St. Pancras tube station can be closed, being either inside St. Pancras or too close to the Euston Road to allow room for large crowds to wait.
King's Cross in fictionEdit
King's Cross is featured in the Harry Potter books, by J. K. Rowling, as the starting point of the Hogwarts Express. The train uses a secret platform 9¾ located by passing through the brick wall barrier between platforms 9 and 10. Platforms 9 and 10 are in a separate building from the main station; also, rather than being adjacent so that a barrier could be between them, they are separated by two intervening tracks. Rowling intended the location to be in the main part of the station, but misremembered the platform numbering. During an interview in 2001, she indicated that she had confused King's Cross with Euston. In fact, platforms 9 and 10 at Euston are also separated by two intervening tracks. When the films were made, the station scenes took place within the main station, with platforms 4 and 5 renumbered 9 and 10. In the film of Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, the exterior of the adjacent St. Pancras station was used, as its Victorian Gothic façade was considered more impressive than the real King's Cross station. When the first film was released, a large floor panel was placed on the ground outside platforms 9 and 10 indicating the Hogwarts Express. It was later removed. Within King's Cross, a cast-iron "Platform 9¾" sign has been erected on a wall of the station's suburban building containing the real platforms 9 and 10. Part of a luggage trolley has also been installed below the sign; while the near end is visible, the rest of the trolley seems to have disappeared into the wall. It is common to see Harry Potter fans stop to photograph the trolley or try to push the rest of the luggage trolley through the wall to the hidden platform. "King's Cross" is the title of Chapter 35 of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, which is set in a location resembling the station. The station is also featured in the epilogue of the same book, making it the final setting of the Harry Potter series.
Pet Shop BoysEdit
In their music video "Rent" (1987), King's Cross Station is used extensively as a backdrop. The concourse is used as a meeting point for Chris Lowe and Margi Clarke playing characters who are reunited, in front of the departures and arrivals board. Also in the background are notices stating that engineering work will disrupt services, which at the time, 1987, was actually in progress to modernise the line. Parked outside in the taxi rank of the station is Neil Tennant, who is playing Margi Clarke's taxi driver in the same music video. The Pet Shop Boys released a song entitled "King's Cross" on the 1986 album Actually, later covered by Tracey Thorn; the cover was subsequently remixed by Hot Chip. The station was also extensively filmed in for the Pet Shop Boys feature film, released in 1988, It Couldn't Happen Here.
- The station is mentioned as suggesting "infinity" to Margaret Schlegel and contrasted with the "facile splendours" of St Pancras in Chapter 2 of E.M. Forster's novel Howards End.
- The Doctor Who Virgin New Adventures novel Transit features King's Cross as one of the main hubs of an interplanetary transit system based on the London Underground.
- In children's television programmes featuring the puppet Roland Rat, Roland is said to live in the sewers beneath King's Cross. In Roland Rat: The Series this was realised as the high-tech "Ratcave", accessed from a hidden lift in a workman's shelter.
- The twelfth and final episode of the anime Victorian Romance Emma prominently features King's Cross Station in 1885 with great historical accuracy and detail.
- Some of Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories have Holmes and Dr. Watson travelling by way of King's Cross. The following example is from The Adventure of the Missing Three-Quarter, Watson speaking first:
"And what have you gained?"
"A starting-point for our investigation." He hailed a cab. "King's Cross Station," said he.
"We have a journey, then?"
"Yes; I think we must run down to Cambridge together. All the indications seem to me to point in that direction."
- The station, its surrounding streets and the railway approach feature prominently in scenes from the 1955 Ealing comedy film, The Ladykillers.
- Scenes from the 1995 Bollywood film Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (DDLJ) were filmed at this station.
- There is an underground station called King's Cross on the North London System in the 1980 novel The Horn of Mortal Danger. It corresponds to this station rather than the Tube one.
- In the Rev. W.V. Awdry's Railway Series of children's books, Gordon, Duck and an engine from "the Other Railway" have a lengthy argument about the name of the London station (apparently not realizing that there is more than one railway station in London). Gordon says it's called King's Cross, but Duck insists that the name is Paddington (because he worked for the GWR) and the visiting engine believes it to be Euston. Desperate to prove himself right, Gordon tries to go to London himself and finally succeeds. However, on his return from St Pancras he laments that his destination was "all wrong."
- In Eva Ibbotson's children's book The Secret of Platform 13, there is a door between worlds called a "Gump" under the fictitious and abandoned platform 13.
- R.S.V.P. Part 1, an issue of the comic book Hellblazer begins with a shot of the Platform 9¾ sign; appropriate, because the story itself concerns a gathering of magicians — albeit a less palatable one than Hogwarts.
- In the film Green Street, King's Cross station can be seen in the background of its now abandoned car park.
- In the 1933 film Friday the Thirteenth, King's Cross is used as the location to introduce two of the main characters. The name of the station is emphasised in the dialogue.
The station name, King's Cross, is seen spelt both with and without an apostrophe:
- King's Cross is the signage used in the Network Rail and London Underground stations and on the tube map.
- The official Network Rail webpage uses the "King's Cross" spelling.
- Kings Cross is used in the National Rail timetable database, as well as on other National Rail railway pages, and the usage is also seen on the TheTrainLine online booking system. However, other stations such as King's Lynn and Hall i' th' Wood also lack apostrophes, suggesting that this is either a software limitation or a consistent stylistic convention.
- Older British Railways signage also used the name "Kings Cross", without the apostrophe.
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