UK Transport Wiki

This page lists every electric-powered multiple unit allocated a TOPS classification or used on the mainline network since 1948 (i.e. British Railways and post-privatisation). British Rail operated a wide variety of electric multiple units for use on electrified lines.

  • AC units operate off 25 kV alternating current (AC) from overhead wires. Where clearances for the overhead wires on the Great Eastern Main Line and London, Tilbury and Southend railway routes were below standard, a reduced voltage of 6.25 kV AC was used. The Midland Railway units used 6.6 kV AC. Under the computer numbering, AC units (including mixed-voltage units that can also work off a DC supply) were given a class in the range 300-399.
  • DC units operate off 650-850 V direct current (DC) from a third rail on the Southern Region and North London, Merseyside and Tyneside networks. The Manchester-Bury Railway line used 1,200 V DC from a side-contact third rail. The Manchester South Junction & Altrincham and "Woodhead" and initially the Great Eastern Railway routes used 1,500 V DC from overhead wires. Under the computer numbering, DC units were given a class in the range 400-599.

AC EMUs and dual-voltage EMUs[]

First generation[]

File:Class 303 at Wemyss Bay (April 1984).jpg

TransClyde branded Class 303 unrefurbished unit no. 303 089 at Wemyss Bay railway station.

File:312718 and 312721 at Kirby Cross.JPG

First Great Eastern Class 312 units nos. 312718 and 312721 at Kirby Cross railway station

TOPS class Pre-TOPS class Name or Information Image
Ex-MR units   Lancaster-Morecambe-Heysham
Class 300   Proposed parcels units
  AM1 25kV AC prototype units
Class 302 AM2 London-Tilbury-Southend File:LTS unit (class 302) 298 1964 Barking.jpg
Class 303 AM3 Strathclyde. Also on Greater Manchester area services during 1980s/early 1990s. File:303s 40central.jpg
Class 304 AM4 Greater Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham File:BR multiple unit at Altrincham station - - 199795.jpg
Class 305 AM5 Chingford, Enfield File:305-plat-8-broken-down-Stratford.jpg
Class 306 AM6 Shenfield (inner-suburban) File:Class 306 Green.jpg
Class 307 AM7 Southend (outer-suburban) File:307-blue brute Liv-St-Stn.jpg
Class 308 AM8 Eastern Region lines File:Britishrailclass308.jpg
Class 309 AM9 Clacton Express. File:Class 309 NSE & Jaffa Cake.jpg
Class 310 AM10 Euston outer-suburban. Also West Midlands File:310-blue-Harrow&Wealdstone2.jpg
Class 311 AM11 Strathclyde File:311104 at a station.jpg
Class 312 Great Eastern suburban
Great Northern suburban
West Midlands (four units)
File:312792 at Shoeburyness.jpg

Second generation[]

File:313060 at Kings Cross.jpg

First Capital Connect Class 313 no. 313060 at Kings Cross railway station

TOPS class Built for Current Operator(s) Builder Number built Image
Class 313 BR Eastern Region
(Great Northern suburban)
Southern BREL York 1976-77 64 x 3-car sets File:313046 030 ENC 01.jpg
Class 314 BR Scottish Region
(Argyle Line)
N/A, retired in 2019 BREL York 19779 16 x 3-car sets File:Class314orange.jpg
Class 315 BR Eastern Region
(Great Eastern suburban)
TfL Rail BREL York 1980-81 61 x 4-car sets File:Unit 315838 at Ilford.JPG
Class 316 (I) (AC Networker prototype) (never used in passenger service, now out of service) converted from class 210 and 313 cars 1 x 4-car set File:British Rail Class 457 - unit 7001 - vehicle 67300.JPG
Class 316 (II) (test unit) (never used in passenger service, now out of service) converted from class 307 1 x 3-car set
Class 317 Network SouthEast
('Bedpan' and Great Northern lines)
Greater Anglia BREL York 1981-82(317/1)
72 x 4-car sets File:NXEA 317506 Liverpool Street AB1.JPG
Class 318 Provincial ScotRail
(for Strathclyde PTE)
Abellio ScotRail BREL York 1985-87 21 x 3-car sets File:British Rail Class 318 264 f.jpg
Class 319 Network SouthEast
(Thameslink services)
West Midlands Trains

Northern Trains

BREL York 1987-88(319/0)
86 x 4-car sets File:319456 C London St Pancras.JPG
Class 320 Provincial ScotRail
(for Strathclyde PTE)
Abellio ScotRail BREL York 1990 22 x 3-car sets (original)

12 x 3-car sets (converted from Class 321/4 in 2016)

File:Glasgow2001 6.jpg
Class 321 Network SouthEast
(Great Eastern and Euston services); and
Regional Railways
(for West Yorkshire PTE)
Greater Anglia BREL York 1988-90(321/3)
117 x 4-car sets File:V F CC 321404 A Hornsey TMD.JPG
Class 322 Network SouthEast
(Stansted Express service)
Greater Anglia BREL York 1990 5 x 4-car sets File:322485 at London Liverpool Street.JPG
Class 325 Rail Express Systems
(for Royal Mail)
FirstGBRf ABB Derby 1995-96 16 x 4-car units File:325016-Crewe-01.jpg

Modern Generation[]

File:350101 Watford Junction.JPG

Class 350 no. 350101 at Watford Junction.

These use electrical switching devices (thyristors and transistors) and have electronic power control.

TOPS class Built for Current Operator(s) Builder Number Built Image
Class 323 Regional Railways
(for West Midlands PTE and Greater Manchester PTE)
Northern Trains,

West Midlands Trains

Hunslet 1992-93 43 x 3-car sets File:London Midland Class 323.jpg
Class 331 Arriva Rail North/Northern Trains Northern Trains CAF 2017-2020 31 x 3-car sets

12 x 4-car sets

Class 332 Heathrow Express N/A, currently stored or scrapped Siemens/CAF 1997-1998
9 x 4-car sets
5 x 5-car sets
File:Heathrow Express 332 008.jpg
Class 333 Arriva Trains Northern
(for West Yorkshire PTE)
Northern Trains Siemens/CAF 2000 18 x 4-car sets File:Northern-333015-03.jpg
Class 334
(for Strathclyde PTE)
Abellio ScotRail Alstom Birmingham 1999-2002 40 x 3-car sets File:SPT trains.jpg
Class 341
proposed units for Crossrail - (never built) -
Class 342
proposed units for CTRL Domestic Services - (never built) -
Class 350
Central Trains,

First TransPennine Express

West Midlands Trains Siemens 2004-05
67 x 4-car sets Tivedshambo 2007-11-16 London Midland 350.jpg
Class 357
LTS Rail/c2c c2c Adtranz/Bombardier Derby 1999-2001
74 x 4-car sets File:357036 at Southend Central.jpg
Class 360
First Great Eastern,
Heathrow Connect
Greater Anglia (360/1)



Siemens 2002-03
21 x 4-car sets
5 x 5-car sets
File:360109 at Marks Tay.jpg
Class 365
Network SouthEast
(Great Northern and South Eastern services)
Great Northern (21 units)

Storage (20 units)

ABB York 1994-95 41 x 4-car sets File:Class 365 near Watlington.jpg
Class 371
proposed units for Thameslink 2000 - (never built) -
Class 375
Connex South Eastern,
South Eastern Trains
Southeastern Adtranz/Bombardier Derby 1999-2005 10 x 3-car sets
102 x 4-car sets
Class 376
South Eastern Trains Southeastern Bombardier Derby 2004-06 36 x 5-car sets File:Class376londonbridge.jpg
Class 377

First Capital Connect

Bombardier Derby 2001-05
28 x 3-car sets
154 x 4-car sets
File:Unit 377213 Watford.JPG
Class 378
London Overground London Overground Bombardier Derby 2009-2013 57 x 5-car sets File:Unit 378138 at Hoxton.jpg
Class 379
Electrostar II
National Express East Anglia Greater Anglia Bombardier Derby 2010-2011 30 x 4-car sets
Class 380
First ScotRail Abellio ScotRail Siemens 2009-2011 38 x 3/4-car sets File:New train mock-up at Glasgow Central - - 1300543.jpg
Class 381
proposed Network SouthEast express units - (never built) -
Class 385 AT200 Abellio ScotRail Abellio ScotRail Hitachi Newton Aycliffe 2015-2019 46 x 3-car sets (385/0)

24 x 4-car sets


Class 387


Great Western Railway, Great Northern, Gatwick Express, c2c Great Western Railway, Heathrow Express, Great Northern, Gatwick Express, c2c Bombardier Derby 2014-2017 104 x 4-car sets

High Speed Trains[]

File:390029 'City of Stoke-on-Trent' at Birmingham New Street.JPG

Virgin Trains Class 390 no. 390029 at Birmingham New Street

TOPS class Built for Current Operator(s) Builder Number Built Image
Class 370
prototype Advanced Passenger Train (out of service) BREL Derby 1979 6 x 7-car half sets
2 spare cars
File:APT at Crewe.jpg
Class 373
Eurostar Eurostar
various builders 1992-96 14 x 8-car half sets
64 x 10-car half sets
1 spare car
File:Eurostar at St Pancras railway station.jpg
Class 374


Eurostar Eurostar Siemens Krefeld 2011-2018 17 16-car sets
Class 390
Virgin Trains West Coast Avanti West Coast Alstom Birmingham 2001-2012 22 x 9-car sets


35x 11-car sets


File:390045 at Carlisle.JPG
Class 395
Javelin, AT300
Southeastern Southeastern Hitachi Newton Aycliffe 2007-2009 29 x 6-car sets File:Class 395 Javelin STP 001.jpg
Class 801

Azuma, AT300

Virgin Trains East Coast/London North Eastern Railway London North Eastern Railway Hitachi Newton Aycliffe 2017-2020 12 x 5-car sets


30 x 9-car sets


Class 803 AT300 East Coast Trains N/A (not in service yet) Hitachi Newton Aycliffe 2020-N/A

(still under construction)

5 x 5-car sets


Southern Region units[]

The Southern Railway and its successor, the Southern Region of British Rail, used three letter codes to classify their DC EMU fleets, as shown after the TOPS class numbers.



4Sub unit no. 8143 at the National Railway Museum

TOPS class SR class Name or Information
2SL South London
2Wim Wimbledon-Croydon
4DD Double Deck EMU
6Cit London Bridge-Brighton
6Pan Pantry units
6Pul Pullman
London Victoria-Brighton
Class 401 2Bil
Class 402 2Hal
Class 403 5Bel Brighton Belle
Class 404 4Cor
Class 405 4Sub

Mark 1 and 2 Bodyshell[]

File:9110 at London Victoria.jpg

Gatwick Express Class 489 unit no. 489110 at London Victoria.

File:1586 at London Victoria.jpg

South Eastern Trains Class 411 unit no. 1586 at London Victoria.

TOPS class SR class Name or Information
Class 410 4Bep
Class 411 4Cep
Class 412 4Bep
Class 413 4Cap 2 x 2Hap permanently coupled
Class 414 2Hap
Class 415 4EPB
Class 416 2EPB
Class 418 2Sap 2Hap units with declassified 1st Class accommodation
Class 419 MLV London-Dover/Folkestone boat trains
Class 420 4Big
Class 421 4/3Cig
Last 2 units of this type in service were withdrawn in 2010
Class 422 4Big
Class 423 4Vep
Class 427 4Veg First stock used for Gatwick Express
Class 430 4Rep
Class 431 6Rep
Class 432 4Rep
Class 438 3TC
Class 480 8Vab
Class 482 (I) 8Mig
Class 488 Gatwick Express Trailers
Class 489 GLV Gatwick Express driving trailers
Class 499 TLV

Tube Stock[]

File:Isle of Wight 483 001.jpg

Network SouthEast branded Class 483 unit no.483001

TOPS class SR class Name or Information Image
Class 482 (II) Waterloo & City Line
sold to LU
File:65507 at Bank LUL station.jpg
Class 483 Isle of Wight
ex LU 1938 stock
File:Island line.JPG
Class 484 Isle of Wight

overhauled and re-engined ex-LU D stock

Class 485 4Vec ex LU Standard stock File:Shanklinstn.jpg
Class 486 3Tis ex LU Standard stock File:Rydephstn.jpg
Class 487 Waterloo & City Line File:487-TSO-Blue.jpg

Modern EMUs[]

File:SWT Class 455 refurbished.jpg

South West Trains Class 455 unit no. 455713 at Wimbledon railway station.

File:Bromley North Railway Station.jpg

Southeastern Class 466 unit no. 466018 at Bromley North railway station.

TOPS class SR class Name or Information In service with Image
Class 424 Networker Classic Prototype N/A
Class 442 5Wes Wessex Electrics South Western Railway
Class 444 5Des Desiro South Western Railway File:444026 at Waterloo.jpg
Class 445 4Pep Second Generation EMU prototype - 4 car N/A 4 PEP unit No.4002 in the sidings at Wimbledon depot.
Class 446 2Pep Second Generation EMU prototype - 2 car N/A
Class 447 Proposed Battersea Bullet N/A File:Class 447 Battersea Bullet.PNG
Class 450 4Des Desiro South Western Railway File:450083 at Waterloo.jpg
Class 455 Southern,

South Western Railway

Class 456 South Western Railway File:British Rail Class 322.jpg
Class 457 DC Networker prototype File:British Rail Class 457 - unit 7001 - vehicle 67300.JPG
Class 458/5 5Jup Juniper South Western Railway
Class 460 8Gat Juniper - Gatwick Express N/A File:460002 at East Croydon.jpg
Class 465 Networker - 4 car Southeastern File:South Eastern Trains 465238 at Grenwich 2005-12-10 02.jpg
Class 466 Networker - 2 car Southeastern File:Maidstone West Station 04.JPG
Class 471 Proposed Networker - Main Line Express N/A

Other DC units[]

The 500 series classes were reserved for DC (third/fourth rail) EMUs not from the Southern Region. This included the DC (third/fourth rail) lines in North London, Merseyside and Greater Manchester. The DC electric network around Tyneside had been de-electrified by the time TOPS was introduced, and the stock withdrawn or transferred to the Southern Region.


Merseyrail Class 507 unit no. 507009 at Liverpool Central railway station.

TOPS classes

Class Info Image Notes
Class 501 North London stock File:Class-501-train-B1-headcode.jpg 650v Third & Fourth Rail
Class 502 Liverpool-Southport/Ormskirk stock File:Class 502 EMU at Tebay.jpg 650v Third Rail
Class 503 Mersey-Wirral stock File:Image-British-Rail-Class-503.jpg 650v Third Rail
Class 504 Manchester-Bury stock File:British Rail Class 504 ManVic prior to Metrolink.jpg 1.2kV Side Contact Third Rail
(Unique on BR network)
Class 505 Manchester-Altrincham stock 1.5kV OHLE
Class 506 Manchester-Hadfield/Glossop stock File:Class 506 EMU and Class 104 DMU Longsight 1983.jpg 1.5kV OHLE
Class 507 Merseyside stock File:507001 Hunts Cross.jpg 750v Third Rail
Class 508 Merseyside stock File:508141-LiverpoolLS-01.jpg 750v Third Rail
Class 510 Original classification of Class 455
Class 777 New Merseyrail stock

Pre-TOPS classes

  • Ex-LNER Units (Tyneside stock)
  • Ex-LNWR Units (North London stock)
  • Ex-LYR Units (Manchester-Bury stock)

Battery electric multiple unit (BEMU)[]

This was a one-off unit, withdrawn before the introduction of TOPS.

  • 79998/79999

See also[]


External links[]

simple:List of British Rail electric multiple unit classes